As we approach the end of 2019, many organisations and institutions publish their forecasts for the state of the world economy in 2020. According to the New York-based Conference Board, an international business research think tank, the world economy significantly weakened in 2019 to 2.3 percent growth in GDP, down from 3.0 percent in 2018. However, a small recovery in 2020 to 2.5 percent growth is likely, The Conference Board predicts in its Global Economic Outlook 2020. In the longer-term, the world economy will grow at about 2.7 percent by the middle of the next decade.
The critical component of the recovery in 2020 is the eventual bottoming out of the decline in industrial production. The slump, which originated in China in 2018, rapidly spread across the world in 2019 and upset global supply chains, pushing some economies (such as those in Germany and Japan) to the brink of recession. Emerging markets in particular will benefit from an industrial recovery, rising commodity and energy prices, and stable currencies.
"The global economy has taken a bigger hit in 2019 than anticipated and it seems we have arrived in a world of stagnating growth," says Bart van Ark, Chief Economist of The Conference Board. "But even though recession fears are widespread, we expect some recovery in 2020 as China's overcapacity problem is being addressed, supply chains are getting restructured, the risk of an escalation of trade disputes recedes, and productivity growth continues to recover."
While output may still contract temporarily in some locations (for example, in Germany, Italy, Japan, or the UK) as well as in some emerging markets (such as Brazil, Mexico, and Turkey), robust labour markets and strong consumer spending will continue to provide an important contribution to growth for most countries. The current unusually large gap between the high level of consumer confidence and rapidly declining business confidence is likely to get resolved in favour of improving business confidence.
(Notes: Colour ramp is based on GDP growth rates in 2020 Source: The Conference Board Economic Outlook 2020)
Underpinnings of the 2020 Outlook Suggest a Plausible Recovery Scenario
US GDP growth will slow moderately
US GDP will grow at 2.2 percent in 2020, supported by a modest improvement in investment, slower but still solid employment growth, strong consumer spending, and slightly faster productivity growth. The external sector will detract from US growth in 2020 as the trade deficit keeps growing.
China's growth will slightly improve as industrial restructuring pays off
The Conference Board forecasts China's GDP growth at 3.4 percent in 2020, according to its independent estimates. Provisional estimates for 2018 and 2019 show that China's growth rate slowed from 3.7 percent to 3.0 percent respectively. While China will show less inclination to launch any large additional fiscal and monetary stimulus packages, it appears that excess capacity is being contained and might eventually be reduced.
Other emerging markets also show slight recoveries
Beyond China, other emerging markets will benefit from the bottoming out of the industrial cycle. Some Asian economies (e.g., Vietnam and Cambodia) will benefit from the reallocation of supply chains, and some large economies (in particular India and Indonesia) will continue to see rapid domestic growth. However, various large emerging markets will grow at less than 1 percent, including Brazil, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Turkey.
The UK economy will enter a recession
Irrespective of whether a deal or no-deal Brexit emerges by late 2019 or early 2020, a contraction of the UK economy over multiple quarters will be difficult to avoid. If a no-deal Brexit emerges, the immediate impact on the economy depends on what share of companies are well prepared to offset negative effects from delays in bringing goods and services across borders with Europe and how disruptions in the flow of foreign workers are managed by the government.
GDP growth for the Euro Area will weaken slightly more
Even though contraction for the aggregate Euro Area is likely to be averted in 2020, Europe's largest economy, Germany, might see negative growth in late 2019 and/or early 2020. The impact of a no-deal Brexit creates a downside for EU countries that depend the most on trade and investment in the UK, such as Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, and especially Ireland.
Geopolitical uncertainties will be contained
Geopolitical conflicts are assumed to be contained. If excessive volatility in oil prices is avoided with prices staying at moderate levels between US$50–70 per barrel, and currency turbulence is limited, global trade will slightly recover but grow more slowly than GDP.
Monetary policy may not be a panacea
Loosening monetary policy, while creating greater long-term financial risks, such as increased national debt and misallocation of capital to low-yielding assets, will provide a floor of liquidity to keep the global economy afloat in the short term. However, the effectiveness of more quantitative easing and low or negative interest rates to drive faster growth is limited at best.
Use of fiscal policy might prevent recessions
While there is no certainty about how much room individual governments in the US, China, or Europe have or how willing they are to intervene to head off a larger downturn through fiscal stimulus, there may be room for this in several economies, including Germany, Japan, the UK, and the United States. Longer-term challenges to the level of sovereign debt, in particular in the US and Japan, are muted but could erupt as interest rates go up and higher inflation eventually returns.
Van Ark is executive vice president and global chief economist of the Conference Board. Appointed in 2008, he oversees the production of widely watched economic indicators and growth forecasts around the globe as well as an in-depth global research program on topics related to economic policy, labour markets, productivity, technology and innovation, and digital transformation. He leads a global research team based in New York, Brussels, Beijing, and Kuwait, as well as the Economy, Strategy and Finance Centre Van Ark is also a professor in economic development, technological change, and growth at the University of Groningen (the Netherlands).